Ajankohtaista

Väitös: 9.9.2017 Uusi sävellytysmenetelmä tuo musiikin oppimisen iloa kouluun (Huttunen)

Alkamisaika: lauantai 09. syyskuuta 2017, 12.00

Päättymisaika: lauantai 09. syyskuuta 2017, 15.00

Paikka: Seminaarinmäki, Seminarium, S212

Taina HuttunenKM, MusM Taina Huttusen musiikkikasvatuksen väitöskirjan ”Osallistava sävellytysmenetelmä musiikinopetukseen. Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman 2014 tavoitteita ja oppimisen ydinmetaforia toteuttamassa” tarkastustilaisuus. Vastaväittäjänä professori Juha Ojala (Oulun yliopisto) ja kustoksena professori Jukka Louhivuori (Jyväskylän yliopisto).

Uusi opetussuunnitelma velvoittaa sävellyttämiseen ja musiikilliseen keksimiseen peruskoulussa. Taina Huttunen testasi ja tarjosi tutkimuksessaan konkreettisen mallin opettajien työn tueksi uuden opetussuunnitelman musiikillisten ja laaja-alaisten tavoitteiden toteuttamiselle.

-          Osallistavan sävellytysmenetelmän (OSM) avulla jokainen peruskoululainen pystyy ohjatusti luovaan musiikilliseen keksintään, mihin uusi opetussuunnitelma velvoittaa. Opettajalla pitää olla perusvalmiudet ja tilanteen organisointitaitoa, mutta OSM itsessään ohjaa laaja-alaisten tavoitteiden harjoituttamiseen ja turvalliseen oppimistilanteeseen musiikillisten taitojen oppimisen ohessa, Huttunen kertoo.

-          Luova toiminta ja turvalliset puitteet luovat aitoa oppimisen iloa. Menetelmässä harjoitellaan myös itsesäätelyä, esiintymistä ja yleisönä olemista. Kaikki tutkimukseen osallistuneet oppilaat keksivät ja esittivät oman musiikillisen tuotoksensa. Menetelmä koettiin turvalliseksi ja opettajien käyttöön soveltuvaksi, Huttunen kuvailee.

Sävellytystehtäviksi Huttunen valitsi räpin ja kantelemelodian. Osallistavassa sävellytysmenetelmässä oppilaat perehtyvät ensiksi prosessiin ja opettelevat tarvittavia musiikillisia elementtejä ja turvatekijöitä. Sitä seuraa keksiminen, harjoittelu, kirjallinen muistiinmerkintä ja äänitys sekä kirjallisen asun tarkistus. Olennaista on myös rakentavan kritiikin antaminen ja vastaanottaminen sekä vertaisarviointi. Sävellystä kehitetään saadun kritiikin pohjalta ja harjoitellaan konserttia varten. Oppilaat keksivät myös sävellykselle ja yhtyeelle nimen, pohtivat esiintymisasun ja koreografian sekä tarkistavat kirjallisen asun. Sävellytysprosessi huipentuu konserttiin, itsearviointiin ja mahdollisesti karonkkaan.

Turvallisuus on edellytys luovuudelle

Keskeiseen asemaan nousi turvallisen työilmapiirin luominen. Se on edellytyksenä rohkeudelle yrittää ja kokeilla luovuutta.

-          Osallistavaa sävellytysmenetelmää voi soveltaa eri oppilaitoksiin ja eri oppiaineisiin, joissa tehdään luovia sovelluksia avoimien ongelmien ratkaisemiseksi. Menetelmä ohjaa myös hyvään työrauhaan sekä itsensä ja toisten kunnioittamiseen, Huttunen tiivistää.

Lisätietoja:

Taina Huttunen, puh.0400 649445 tai tainahoo@gmail.com
Viestintäpäällikkö Liisa Harjula, puh. 040 805 4403, viestinta@jyu.fi

Teos on julkaistu sarjassa Jyväskylä Studies in Humanities numerona 321, 244 s., Jyväskylä 2017, ISSN 1459-4323,
 ISBN 978-951-39-7133-5. Sitä saa Jyväskylän yliopiston kirjaston julkaisuyksiköstä, puh. 040 805 3825, myynti@library.jyu.fi. Työ löytyy sähköisessä muodossa osoitteesta http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-7134-2.

Taina Huttunen kirjoitti ylioppilaaksi Nivalan lukiosta vuonna 1986, valmistui kasvatustieteen maisteriksi Jyväskylän yliopistosta 1991, musiikkioppilaitoksen opettajaksi Keski-Suomen konservatoriosta 1994 ja musiikin maisteriksi Sibelius-Akatemiasta 2006. Hän on työskennellyt musiikkileikkikoulunopettajana Jokilaaksojen musiikkiopistossa 1985-1986, viulunsoitonopettajana ja orkesterinjohtajana Nivalan kansalaisopistossa 1984-1995 ja kulttuurilautakunnan järjestämillä kesäleireillä 1984-1994, Kuokkalan musiikkikoulussa 1992-1995, Keski-Suomen konservatoriossa 1991-1995 ja Jyväskylän yliopistossa 1992-1993 sekä oppikirjailijana kustannusosakeyhtiö Otavassa vuosina 2008-2016. Hän on toiminut opettajana Helsingissä vuodesta 1993 alkaen. Hänen nykyinen työpaikkansa on Oulunkylän ala-asteen koulu.


An inclusive composing method for music education

Realising the goals of the curriculum for 2014 and verifying the core metaphors of learning

I used formal concept analysis to examine how the musical contents, the principles for developing working culture and all the goals of music teaching, transversal competences and national education mentioned in the core curriculum on basic education 2014 can be linked with the core metaphors of learning. For that purpose, I created a learning triangle tool that helped to clarify illogical and overlapping concepts and contents. In addition to participation and the gaining and creation of knowledge, I included operative competences in these core metaphors. The feeling of safety is crucial to learning. It can awaken faith and hope and promote operative competences, which in turn can trigger learning and help maintain it. During the learning process, the operative competences and participation reflect and complement each other, creating a foundation for processing knowledge and thus for gaining and creating knowledge. Both knowledge and the development of self are dynamic concepts.

The inclusive composing method (osallistava sävellytysmenetelmä, OSM = ICM) can be flexible, but the main elements remain the same regardless of the composing tasks.

The method is introduced.

The skills and knowledge needed for the composing task are learned; the forms of musical knowledge are learned in many different ways (by learning by ear, by imitating, by reading or writing notes), and they improve the ability to think.

The students apply what they have learned to their own creative output, which will be both recorded and noted in writing.

With the recording on their mobile phone, the students ask for feedback on their music from other students. All students both provide and receive constructive criticism. The criteria for the constructive criticism and for evaluation must be determined within the group.

Since the students know that the constructive criticism they provide to their classmates will be evaluated by the peers, their self-regulation abilities improve. The peer evaluation is a smiley-based evaluation (J – L) of the social footprint that was generated by one’s behaviour. The criteria for the smiley, neutral and sulking faces must be determined within the group. Proper explanations must be provided for a sulking grade, at the very least.

On the basis of the feedback received, students can develop their musical output. Students practice their performance, come up with names for their piece of music and the band, and create performance outfits and a choreography. Even good humour can be practised.

Each student performs in a concert held by the class. During the first composing process, only the audience will be judged by the performers, to make sure that the performance situation feels safe and the students have the best preconditions to succeed. This promotes the students’ self-esteem. The criteria for a good and supportive audience behaviour must be set within the group. After each performance, the performers evaluate the audience by either giving or withholding praise (which can be given in the form of a star, for example). When the method has become familiar, evaluation of the performers can gradually be started, too. They can be evaluated by a thumb vote if the performer had eye contact with the audience, for example. Mistakes should not be highlighted.

After the concert, the students fill in a self-evaluation form. Its questions can revolve around the students’ experiences of the OSM steps (whether they were difficult or easy) and around how they, in their opinion, succeeded in the composition and collaboration, whether they felt safe, etc. By voting for the nicest composition in the class, the students can practise the expression of one’s opinion. The object of the evaluation should be the piece of music, on musical grounds, rather than the composers themselves. The results of the self-evaluations can be used to determine when and where improved support or extra time might be needed.

If the audience has received enough praise from the performers (in the teacher’s opinion), a party is arranged to celebrate the completion of the project, with thanks, cheers, and constructive feedback given to the students who have managed to create and compose their own music, perform in front of the class, appreciate their own and their classmates’ work and encourage everyone. The teacher evaluates the activity, the process and the output of each and every student or small group. Feedback is given individually, not in front of the whole class.

In OSM’s multi-layered inclusive learning and teaching process, there are hermeneutic circles in every core metaphor of learning, and both the teacher and student’s process includes two-way learning spirals. Through this phenomenon-based pedagogical method, the teacher fuses the formal and conceptual structures of knowledge with the learning contents and plans the inclusive composing process within her/his own learning spiral, which interacts with and influences the student’s learning spiral during the composing process. Thoughts get deeper and the conception of knowledge itself expands in hermeneutical circles. The creator and explorer of the method has her own learning spiral. The learning triangle tool and the learning spirals evolved during this research. They are the sum of the conceptual analysis and the theory of this research.

With the inclusive composing method (OSM), it is possible to promote all the aims mentioned in the core curriculum of basic education 2014 (POPS 2014): goals related to both musical and transversal competences, the principles guiding the development of the working culture, the contents of music education, the national goals for teaching and education, and the core metaphors of learning. The tacit knowledge assumes a significant status alongside explicit knowledge. Interaction and the ability to think are needed to transfer the tacit knowledge, i.e. to convert knowledge and to understand the different forms of knowledge as a unity of knowledge. OSM facilitates knowledge conversions that help in the observation of the POPS 2014 goals, promote their achievement and facilitate relevant evaluation. OSM offers means to make students compose, to improve their interaction skills and meta competences, and to evaluate how they achieve the musical and transversal competences. It also offers examples on all these things. All the students who participated in this research created music, performed their creation in front of their group and were satisfied with their output.

Teachers have found OSM suitable for use as a teaching method for music. The method can be adapted to different problem-solving tasks, learning institutions, subjects and branches of science. The study gave rise to several ideas for further research, such as a corresponding study from a student’s perspective, a study on the possibilities that ICT offers for OSM, and the preparation of an OSM guide for teachers (pedagogical paths to all core metaphors of learning and meta competences including a composing task bank.

In Antoine De Saint-Exupéry’s The Little Prince, the young prince says: ‘What is essential is invisible to the eye’. This research highlighted several essential and invisible things, such as tacit knowledge, participation, self-regulation, regard for other people, the feeling of safety, and operative competences.

With music, all the core metaphors of learning can be verified. Music can be used for communication. Music can be heard and experienced. While formal musical concepts exist and music can be notated with symbols, the essence of music is not visible. Music is essential. Music matters. 

Lisätietoja

Taina Huttunen
tainahoo@gmail.com
+358 40 064 9445
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