Department of Physics

RADSAGA project

Learn more about RADSAGA projects at

Radiation Effects and Industrial Applications

Component under test

The group specializes in applied research around nuclear- and accelerator-based technology and operates the Radiation Effects Facility, RADEF, for the studies of radiation effects in electronics and related materials. RADEF officially became an ESA-supported European Component Irradiation Facility (ECIF) in 2005 [ESA/ESTEC Contracts No.18197/04/NL/CP and 4000111630/14/NL/PA]. Since then the group has carried out irradiation tests not only for ESA and the European space industry, but also for other world leading space organizations (e.g. NASAJAXACNES), companies and universities. 

RADEF’s specialty is to provide high penetration heavy ion cocktail beams, protons in wide energy range and energetic electrons. For these the RADEF group utilizes combination of JYFL's ECR ion sources and K-130 cyclotron, and the LINAC electron accelerator. Because the emerging technologies make integrated circuits more susceptible to radiation, the group is expanding its research activities toward the radiation effects in avionics and ground level systems.

contact person: Ari Virtanen

  • Recent activities »
    • eLINAC, high energy electron accelerator »
      Due to the extreme electron radiation environment in the Jovian system and its implications in the next large-scale ESA’s satellite mission JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer, to be launched in 2022), the refurbishing of Varian's Clinac accelerator in RADEF for radiation effects testing was considered important. The eLINAC can provide electron beams at discrete energies of 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. The maximum beam intensity is 1000 MU (Monitor Units), corresponding to the dose rate of 10 Gy/min. = 1 krad/min in water. The commissioning was finalized and accepted by ESA in August 2016 and since then many customers have already performed tests at eLINAC. This work has been done under ESA/GSTP contract [Contract No. 4000112736/14/NL/PA].
      Dr. Miguel Ferreira from ​Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas, Lisboa, Portugal, constructing the test set-up for JUICE mission satellite components.
    • HIISI, high-energy heavy-ion beam development  »
      The objective of the HIISI project (part of FIRI project of Academy of Finland) is to extend the LET and range values of the ion beams at RADEF by increasing the ion charge states in the ECRIS that, in turn, will result in higher ion energies from the K130 cyclotron. A substantial increase in charge states, compared to the recent ECR-2, can be achieved with the newly-designed 18 GHz ECR-ion source. By using a novel room temperature (RT) magnet construction HIISI is designed to produce the same magnetic field configuration as the superconducting ECRIS SUSI at NSCL/M SU for 18 GHz operation. Higher energies make it easier to test components of complex structures at large tilt incident angles, or in air. Also, the large ion ranges allow backside irradiations when testing flip-chip components, and facilitate a safe substrate thinning. The increase in LET will be done by including 197Au in the ion selection. All this will improve the services RADEF facility provides. The goal is to have first 16.2 MeV/nucleon beams produced by the end of 2017. This high charge state work has been done under ESA/GSTP contract [Contract No. 4000112736/14/NL/PA].
      Dr. Taneli Kalvas standing next to the new vacuum chamber of HIISI
    • RADSAGA »

      The RADSAGA (RADiation and Reliability Challenges for Electronics used in Space, Aviation, Ground and Accelerators) will, for the first time, bring together the European industry, universities, laboratories and test facilities to educate 15 PhD's on the subject of electronics exposure to radiation. Three students will graduate from JYFL, two hosted by RADEF and one by CERN. The project spans the years 2016-2020, and the kick-off meeting will be held in April 2017. This EU-MSCA-2020 ITN project (GA#721624) was granted total of 3.9 M€ and is coordinated by CERN. The RADEF group is one of the seven beneficiaries. Fourteen other partners, mainly companies and research laboratories, will take part in the RADSAGA.

    • R2RAM »
      The R2RAM, EU’s HORIZON-2020/RIA project (GA#640073), aimed at developing the design of radiation-hard non-volatile memory technology while using standard silicon CMOS process. The strict radiation requirements demand the use of a new memory cell technology, called "resistive random-access memory" (RRAM), that is inherently tolerant against irradiation from heavy ions and other charged particles, as well as high total ionizing doses. The project was coordinated by Leibniz Institute for Innovations for High-Performance Microelectronics (Germany). The other participants were the Italian University NanoElectronics Team, RedCat Devices Srl (Italy) and RADEF. It resulted in considerable improvements to the state-of-the-art on radiation-resistant memories and these improvements will be exploited in a further ESA-GSTP project.
    • ESA NPI PhD project »

      Title: Single Event Radiation Effects in hardened and state-of- the-art components for space and high-energy radiation environments

      ESA NPI PhD, A collaboration between CERN, ESA (TEC- EES and TEC-QEC) and University of Jyväskylä (RADEF), Airbus part of the technical committee

      Aim of the thesis:

      • Understanding and quantifying the shortcomings of the SEE prediction tools
      • Contribute to establishing guidelines including the currently neglected effects
      • Establish the link between proton/hadron experimental and space SEE failure rates (both proton and heavy ions)
      • Performing a first screening of components in proton or mixed-field facilities (e.g. PSI, CHARM)
      • Evaluate the performance of the chosen COTS devices in the relevant environments (CHARM, CERN and JUICE mission, ESA) and their compliance with radiation hardness standards

      Relevant paper: Maris Tali, Ruben Garcia Alıa, Markus Brugger, Veronique Ferlet-Cavrois, Roberto Corsini, Wilfrid Farabolini, Ali Mohammadzadeh, Giovanni Santin, Ari Virtanen, “Effect of trapped electron radiation on the expected SEE rate for the JUICE mission”, IEEE Tran. Nucl. Sci. (submitted), presented at RADECS 2016 in Bremen, Germany.

      SEU monitor error distribution
    • Single-Event Effects in memory components »

      When electronic memories are submitted to ionizing radiation, charge carriers are generated along the impinging particle tracks. When collected, these charge carriers give rise to parasitic current spikes, which in turn can lead to component error (data corruption) and/or failure. Using ion beams to emulate naturally-occurring radiation environments, our group has been investigating the failure modes of various types of computer memories (e.g. SRAMs, FRAMs, MRAMs, flash memories), offering insights on their failure mechanisms and helping to define the strengths and weaknesses of current memory technologies.

      Relevant papers:

      • A. Bosser, V. Gupta, G. Tsiligiannis, C. Frost, A. Zadeh, A. Javanainen, H. Puchner, F. Saigné, A. Virtanen, F. Wrobel and L. Dilillo, Methodologies for the Statistical Analysis of Memory Response to Radiation, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 63, no. 4 (2016), pp. 2122-2128
      • A. Bosser, V. Gupta, G. Tsiligiannis, A. Javanainen, H. Kettunen, H. Puchner, F. Saigné, A. Virtanen, F. Wrobel and L. Dilillo, Investigation on MCU Clustering Methodologies for Cross-Section Estimation of RAMs, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 62, no. 6, pp 2620 - 2626 (2015)
      SRAM micrograph
    • Radiation effects in Silicon Carbide power devices »

      Silicon carbide (SiC) devices are of great interest for their possible use in power applications in space. Higher breakdown field and thermal conductivity makes SiC a very attractive material compared to silicon for power electronics. However, like their silicon counterparts, SiC power devices (MOSFETs and diodes) are surprisingly sensitive to particle radiation. The basic mechanisms governing this SEE sensitivity has been studied recently.

      Relevant papers:

      • A. Javanainen, K. F. Galloway, C. Nicklaw, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Bosser, J.-M. Lauenstein, F. Pintacuda, R. A. Reed, R. D. Schrimpf, R. A. Weller and A. Virtanen, Heavy Ion Induced Degradation in SiC Schottky Diodes: Bias and Energy Deposition Dependence, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 64, no. 1, (2017), pp. 415-420
      • A. Javanainen, K.F. Galloway, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, J-M. Lauenstein, F. Pintacuda, R.D. Schrimpf, R.A. Reed and A. Virtanen, Charge Transport Mechanisms in Heavy-Ion Driven Leakage Current in Silicon Carbide Schottky Power Diodes, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 16, no. 2 (2016), pp. 208-212
      SiC angle vs. bias heatmap
    • Testing PHY transceivers for Airbus »

      Radiation tests of the PHY transceiver electronics with heavy ions and protons were performed at RADEF. It was done as a sub-contract work for Airbus D&S GmbH, Bremen, Germany. Samples from three different transceiver manufacturers were evaluated. The total ionizing dose tests were conducted at the ESA/ESTEC Co-60 facility in Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

  • Publications »
    • 2016 and 2017 »


      Journal publications:


      Journal publications:

      Proceedings publications:

          • Maris Tali, Ruben Garcıa Alıay, Markus Brugger, Eamonn Daly, Veronique Ferlet-Cavrois, Roberto Corsini, Wilfrid Farabolini, Giovanni Santin and Ari Virtanen,
            Mono-energetic electron induced single-event effects at the VESPER facility,
            Submitted to RADECS-2016 conference held in September, 2016, Bremen, Germany
          • M. Bagatin, S. Gerardin, A. Paccagnella, A. Visconti, A. Costantino, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Virtanen, H. Kettunen and P. Wang,
            Effects of High-energy Electrons in Advanced NAND Flash Memories,
            Submitted to RADECS-2016 conference held in September, 2016, Bremen, Germany
          • Arto Javanainen, Kenneth F. Galloway, Christopher Nicklaw, Véronique Ferlet-Cavrois, Alexandre Bosser, Jean-Marie Lauenstein, Francesco Pintacuda, Robert A. Reed, Ronald D. Schrimpf, Robert A. Weller, and A. Virtanen,
            Incident Angle Effect on Heavy Ion Induced Reverse Leakage Current in SiC Schottky Diodes,
            Submitted to RADECS-2016 conference held in September, 2016, Bremen, Germany
          • T. Kalvas, O. Tarvainen, A. Javanainen, H. Kettunen, H. Koivisto and A. Virtanen,
            Application and development of ion source technology for electronics radiation effects testing,
            Submitted to ECAART-12 conference held in July, 2016, Jyväskylä, Finland
    • List of Publications, 2009-