Nuclear and Accelerator-Based Physics Seminars
- March 28, 2017, at 14:15 in FYS3. Wafa Almosly (University of Jyväskylä): Nuclear response to supernova neutrino
Realistic estimates of neutrino-nucleus interactions in various nuclei are essential for many application in nuclear and astrophysics.
The neutrino-nucleus and antineutrino-nucleus cross sections are calculated for the stable cadmium isotopes and lead isotopes. The considered energies are appropriate for the detection of supernova neutrino. The nuclear responses are computed by folding the computed cross sections with realistic energy spectra for the incoming (anti)neutrino.
The Donnelly-Walecka method was adopted for the cross sections calculations. The required wave function are constructed using quasiparticle random-phase approximation for the even-mass target nuclei and microscopic quasiparticle phonon model for the odd-mass ones.
- April 6, 2017, at 14:15 in FYS3. Prof. Natalie Jachowicz (Ghent University, Belgium): Modeling neutrino-nucleus scattering for accelerator-based neutrino experiments
Neutrino-oscillation experiments rely on neutrino-nucleus scattering to detect the neutrinos carrying the oscillation signal. A precise understanding of the mechanisms underlying the interaction of the neutrino with an atomic nucleus is hence mandatory to disentangle the oscillation pattern. This quest for the precise determination of oscillation parameters is complicated by the fact that monochromatic neutrino beams are not available, and neutrinos are produced with a broad energy distribution. The signal in a detector is the superposition of different reaction mechanisms : quasi-elastic, multi-nucleon emission, pion-production etc., which all need to be understood.
I will present the present status of our models for the description of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, including quasi-elastic excitations, multinucleon knockout and neutrino-induced pionproduction.
- Date to be announced. Dr. Mikael Reponen (University of Jyväskylä): Title to be announced)
- March 13, 2017, 13:15 at FYS1. Prof. Abuduwayiti Aierken (The Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, CAS): Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Solar Cells for Space Application
Currently used space solar cells are GaAs based lattice matched three junction solar cells which conversion efficiency around 28-29%, but it hardly matches the nowadays higher criteria of high efficiency and radiation hardened for space application. In order to increase the cell efficiency, theoretically, increase the number of subcells is the conventional way, however, it is difficult to find proper materials fitting the both lattice matching and current matching requirement between the sub-cells.
In our research, we overcome the lattice mismatch problem between the sub-cells by semiconductor wafer bounding technology, fabricated GaInP/GaAs//GaInAsP/InGaAs four junction full spectra solar cell with conversion efficiency up to 32% under AM0 and the degradation of efficiency is less than 15% after 1MeV electron irradiation with fluence of 10^15 e/cm2.
I will also introduce the Laboratory of Electronic Component Radiation Effects, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Phys. & Chems., Chinese Academy of Sciences.
- March 3, 2017, 10:15 at FYS3. Prof. Bo Cederwall (KTH): Lifetime measurements for sensitive tests of nuclear structure theories
The advantage of lifetime measurements as a tool to constrain nuclear theory will be illustrated with a few examples, including some recent work at JYFL.
- February 28, 2017, 15:15 at FYS3. Prof. Eiji Ideguchi (Osaka University): Nuclear structure programs at RCNP and RIKEN
Some topics of nuclear structure studies at RCNP, Osaka University and RIBF at RIKEN Nishina Center will be presented.
At RCNP, a cyclotron facility is utilized for various nuclear structure studies. There are mainly two beam lines used for these studies. One is EN beam line where unstable nuclear beams can be produced by utilizing projectile fragmentation reactions. The other is WS beam line where high-resolution spectrometer, Grand Raiden, is available. Recently, we have started CAGRA project to combine Ge Clover array (CAGRA) with EN and Grand Raiden spectrometer. Two CAGRA campaign experiments at both beam lines have been successfully performed.
At RIBF, world highest-intensity RI beams are available using BigRIPS fragment separator. A number of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments are performed using NaI based array DALI2 and also experiments using stopped RI beams utilizing EURICA gamma-ray spectrometer were performed. In addition, superheavy element search experiments have been performed and new element, Z=113, was successfully identified and it was named as Nh recently. Some experimental results at RIBF will be introduced. In addition, a new project, OEDO, has been started at SHARAQ beam line by CNS, the University of Tokyo, where low-energy RI beams will be used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. In this project, CAGRA spectrometer can be combined with OEDO to perform high-spin gamma-ray spectroscopy of unstable nuclei.
Future prospects of our project will be discussed.
- February 14, 2017, 14:15 at FYS3. Marc Schuh (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg): The Tritium-Helium-Trap
THe-Trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometer designed to measure the mass ratio of tritium and helium-3 with a relative uncertainty of 10-11. The resulting mass difference, i.e. Q-value, will be of help for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment to measure the endpoint of the tritium beta-decay energy spectrum with a precision better than 0.2 eV. I will give a general overview over THe-Trap and point towards a current problem: In 2015 two groups , published mass values of helium-3 that deviate by 4σ from each other. The groups used different techniques for detecting the ion eigenfrequencies in a Penning trap. On its way to the mass measurement of tritium THe-Trap will investigate both methods to show if their results are consistent.
 Myers, E. G. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 1 (2015)
 S.L. Zafonte and R.S. VanDyck, Metrologia, 52, 280 (2015)
- February 3, 2017, 10:15 at FYS3. Ruben de Groote (Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven): Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy as a sensitive probe of nuclear structure
The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy experiment (CRIS) at ISOLDE combines the high sensitivity and the universal applicability of resonance ionization spectroscopy with the high resolution offered by conventional collinear laser spectroscopy. This makes it an ideal tool to study the (ground-state) electromagnetic moments, radii and nuclear spins of nuclei far from stability. In this seminar, I will give an overview of the technical requirements of high-sensitivity CRIS measurements and the developments that were made to enhance the resolution of the technique. During this discussion, results obtained on e.g. neutron-deficient Fr beams and neutron-rich copper beams will be presented. The recent results on 76-78Cu will also be briefly interpreted through comparison with large-scale shell model calculations. Finally, future possibilities and technical challenges of the CRIS technique will be discussed.
- December 15, 2016, 13:15 at FYS2. Prof. Bob Wadsworth (The University of York): Study of the N = Z nucleus 96Cd via Fragmentation
Studies of N = Z nuclei in the 100Sn region have provided important data to test nuclear shell model predictions in the region. A particular focus in recent years has been the emergence of new data from the fragmentation facilities, which has enabled emphasis to be placed on the interactions and model spaces used to interpret the data. N = Z nuclei are also of interest because neutrons and protons occupy the same orbitals, which can lead to strong np correlations of both isovector and isoscalar type. The presentation will focus on new decay properties of the known 16+ spin-gap isomer in 96Cd  and the first evidence for an isomeric gamma decaying state in this nucleus, the latter of which results allows a tentative decay scheme to be deduced for the low-lying states following comparison with shell model calculations.
 B. S. Nara Singh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 172502 (2011)
- December 13, 2016, 15:15 at FYS3. Prof. Matti Leino (University of Jyväskylä): Recent developments regarding the discovery of elements 115 and 117, and the role of physicists/chemists, or IUPAP/IUPAC
Early this year, the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) gave out the results of its assessment  of the discovery claims of man-made elements 113, 115, and 117, and accordingly gave permission to the discoverers to suggest names for these three elements. The proposed names were made public in June, and the five-month period granted for making comments regarding the suggested names came to an end on November 8th. IUPAC approved the names (also for 118) on Nov. 28th.
Meanwhile, the research collaboration headed by scientists from the University of Lund challenged on statistical grounds the interpretation of the JWP regarding the so called cross reaction argument connecting the discovery of elements 115 and 117 .
I will briefly discuss the element naming procedures and in somewhat more detail the Lund work regarding the decay chains of 117 and 115. This is simply a question of the mutual compatibility of two or more data sets in the special case of radioactive decay law.
Not totally irrelevant is the question of the role of IUPAP and IUPAC in the naming. I will also briefly discuss this.
Both the scientific 117/115 case and the naming practices were discussed in a lively manner in the recent Nobel Symposium NS160 dealing with superheavy element physics and chemistry, theory as well as experiments, held at the Bäckaskog castle in Sweden. My presentation is based on the relevant publications and on these NS160 discussions.
 Paul J. Karol et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 2016; 88(1-2): 139
 U. Forsberg et al., Phys. Lett. B 760 (2016) 293
- December 9, 2016, 12:15 at FYS3. Dr. Ali Al-Adili (Upsala University): Uppsala University and the investigation program on Nuclear Fission
This seminar gives a survey of the nuclear-fission research conducted by Uppsala University. Albeit 75 years of intense research, the community still lacks a complete fission model. Efforts are put by the nuclear-reactions group to understand the dynamics of the fission process.
Experiments are performed on high-precision cross section experiments, fission yields, isomeric yields, prompt fission neutrons and gammas. During this talk, particular focus is put on the collaborations with JRC-GEEL in Belgium. Fission fragment spectroscopy increases the knowledge of the scission configuration and reveals hidden properties of the fission barrier. Especially if excitation energy is allowed to vary. Two different techniques are utilized to study the fission fragments (so-called 2-E and 2E-2v). Once the highly excited fragments are created, they de-excite promptly. These processes are highly affected by nuclear structure and they unwrap the information of energy sharing at scission. Our group also studies prompt fission neutron emission at different excitation energies. Lately we also got involved in prompt fission gamma measurements.
The final part of the seminar will be dedicated to the IGISOL ion guide simulations done at Uppsala.
- November 24, 2016, 10:15 at FYS2. Dr. Oliver Kirsebon (Aarhus University): Bringing an old magnetic spectrometer back out of retirement
A powerful intermediate-image magnetic spectrometer, built in Jyväskylä in the 1980s and capable of focusing 8 MeV electrons, is currently being refurbished with the aim of measuring the end point of the beta-decay spectrum of 20F with high precision. In the seminar, I will review the current status of the project, discuss the astrophysical motivation behind it, and provide an outlook.
- November 8, 2016, 15:15 at FYS3. Dr. Jenni Kotila (University of Jyväskylä): Towards more reliable double beta decay nuclear matrix elements: Obtaining directions from occupation probabilities
The discovery that neutrinos have finite rest mass has led to wide renewed interest in neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ), since it offers a sensitive probe to fundamental open questions about neutrino nature and absolute mass scale. The development of large-scale experiments to search for 0νββ-decay has increased the probability of a credible observation of the process in the near future. Thus, the reliability of the calculations of the associated nuclear matrix elements is likely soon to become a critical issue. A better understanding of nuclear structure can offer important constraints on the calculation of 0νββ-decay nuclear matrix elements. A simple way to consider differences between initial and final states of 0νββ-decay candidates is to look at the ground state occupation probabilities of initial and final nuclei. As is well known, the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) has found to be very useful in the description of detailed aspects of nuclear structure. In this talk I will present results for ground state occupation probabilities obtained using IBM-2 for several interesting candidates of 0νββ-decay. Comparison with recent experimental results is also made.
- October 13, 2016, 13:15 at FYS3. Dr. Panu Ruotsalainen (University of Jyväskylä): Isospin symmetry in the lower sd shell
Traditionally isospin symmetry and its breaking has been investigated by comparing the energies of excited states in mirror nuclei. Nuclear shell model has been an essential tool in understanding the mechanisms leading to isospin symmetry breaking. Recently, the USD interaction was modified to reproduce the mirror energy difference systematics for T = 1, T = 2 and T = 3/2 sd shell nuclei. It was also used to reproduce the B(E2) values for these nuclei. Experimentally the B(E2) values are relatively well known for the T = 1 and T = 2 sd shell nuclei, which are in good agreement with the recent calculation. For the T = 3/2 sd shell mirror pairs, however, until now only one experimental B(E2) value has been available at A = 33. In this this seminar I will present the recent results from a Coulomb excitation study of T_z = -3/2 nucleus Mg-21 performed at TRIUMF, Vancouver. This new data puts the successful USD interaction to a stringent test by providing a second data point for the B(E2) systematics in the case of T = 3/2 sd shell nuclei.
- August 16, 2016, 15:15 at FYS2. Prof. Andrey Andreyev (The University of York): Low-energy fission in the lead region: the synergy of beta-delayed, Coulex-induced and fusion-fission approaches
In the last decade, through technological, experimental and theoretical advances, the situation in experimental low-energy fission studies has changed dramatically. With the use of advanced production and detection techniques, much more detailed fission information can be obtained for traditional regions of fission research and, very importantly, new regions of nuclei have become accessible for fission studies.
The talk will give a review of recent low-energy fission experiments in very proton-rich nuclei in the lead region. Three complementary methods of fission studies in this region will be discussed: beta-delayed fission [1,2,3], Coulex-induced fission  and fusion-fission reactions induced by charged particles [5,6].
Recent theoretical efforts in respect of low-energy fission calculations in this region of nuclei will also be reviewed.
The talk will also briefly present the results of the recent (June -July 2016) experiment at ISOLDE in which both beta-delayed fission in 188Bi and charge radii in the long chain of bismuth isotopes have been studied.
1. A. N. Andreyev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)
2. L. Ghys et al., Phys. Rev. C90, 041301(R) (2014)
3. A.N. Andreyev, M. Huyse, P. Van Duppen, Reviews of Modern Physics, 85, 1541 (2013)
4. J.-F. Martin et al, Eur. Phys. J. A51, 174 (2015)
5. K. Nishio et al. Phys. Lett. B, 748, 89 (2015)
6. E. Prasad et al., Phys. Rev. C 91, 064605 (2015)