23.01.2017

KOEKIRJAAN (George Yule, The Study of Language) PERUSTUVA KOE

Koe sisältää lyhyitä avoimia kysymyksiä koekirjasta. Kokeen tarkoituksena on testata hakijoiden valmiuksia omaksua kielitieteellistä perustietoa ja alan käsitteitä. Vastausten arviointi perustuu sisällön tarkkuuteen ja vastausten selkeyteen ja havainnollisuuteen.

Yulen kirjan kysymyksiin vastataan englanniksi.

Alla näet aiemmissa valintakokeissa annetut ohjeet sekä kaksi esimerkkiä kysymyksistä ja vastauksista, kaksi erilaista kumpaankin kysymykseen. Vastausesimerkit ovat opiskelemaan hakeneiden vastauksia, joista valintakokeessa on saanut täydet pisteet niissä esiintyvistä pienistä epätarkkuuksista huolimatta. Mahdollisia kielivirheitä ei kuitenkaan ole korjattu, joten kielen suhteen ne eivät välttämättä ole esimerkillisiä.

DIRECTIONS: Consider the following concepts. In your own words, give a brief and concise definition of what each concept means in language study, also pointing out the area of language study with which it is associated. Whenever possible, try to illustrate the terms by giving one or two examples of your own. Write your answers as if your reader did not know much about language study: in other words, be explicit and clear.

1. Antonym

Answer A: Antonymy is a particular kind of lexical relationship between two words, studied in the field of semantics. Antonyms are two words that have opposite meanings, for example >big= and >small=.

There are gradable antonyms, which can be used in a comparative construction (e.g. smaller than, bigger than), and non-gradable antonyms, which cannot be used in this way (e.g. >female= - >male=, >alive= - >dead=). When you use non-gradable antonyms, the negative of one word implies the other (e.g. not alive means dead), whereas, when using gradable antonyms, the negative of >small=, for example, doesn=t necessarily mean >big=.

Reversives are particular kinds of antonyms (e.g. >enter= - >exit=) where one word means the reversive of the other, not the negative.

Answer B: Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, e.g. big - small, long - short, dead - alive, present - absent. Antonyms are divided into two gategories: gradable and non-gradable antonyms. Gradable antonyms can be compared; you can say that something is bigger than something else. Another feature is that if an object doesn=t have the feature of one of the two (e.g. big), it doesn=t mean that it has to have the feature of the other one. If a ball is not big, it doesn=t mean that it=s small. Non-gradable antonyms do not share this feature. If a person is not alive, it definitely means that he is dead.

Antonyms are associated withe the lexical relations between words, which are part of semantics.

2. Speech act

Answer A: Speech acts are investigated in the study of pragmatics, which in general analyzes communicative situations. A speech act can be in form of a question, command, request or statement, performed by the speaker, directed to a person with whom the speaker is communicating. Speech acts, for example questions, can be simply asking for some knowledge, as in ACan you speak Italian@; this is called a direct speech act. Whenever a speech act is used to indicate something else than it Atraditionally@ means, it becomes an indirect speech act, as in when asking ACould you pass me the sugar, please?@; this type of phrase is not usually considered a question, but a request for doing something.

Answer B: In pragmatics there are two types of speech acts, direct and indirect speech acts.

A direct speech act is used when a person asks another to provide information about something or telling someone to do something. For example >Can you swim?= and >Give me that box!= are direct speech acts.

Indirect speech acts are more polite forms of requesting. For example the statement >You left the door open= can be treated as a request to close the door. A question can also be treated as a request. In the question >Can you pass the salt?= there isn=t a question of ability involved, but an indirect and polite way of requesting.

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