The Bibliography

The bibliography serves your reader. With the help of the information you give about your sources, the reader can find the sources in libraries, book shops or on the Internet and read more about the issues you have raised in your paper (or check that you have used the sources properly).

All the sources that you have cited in your paper or thesis must be included in the bibliography. Other sources that you may have consulted but do not cite, are not included. The bibliography must give all the necessary information about the sources, in other words who wrote the work, when, what the work is called, and where it was published.

  • Author or authors’ surname and first letter of first name
  • Year of publication (i.e. year of copyright, ©)
  • Title of the work (book, paper, article, web source)
  • (Details of the source that the work comes from: e.g. title of journal, authors, and title of edited collection)
  • Place of publication (i.e. the hometown of the publisher, not the place where the book was printed!)
  • Publisher (e.g. Routledge, Oxford University Press, Sage)
  • (Page numbers of articles and papers)

If your study is based on published sources (e.g. if you are studying a work of fiction), you should list primary sources and secondary sources separately. Primary sources are those works that you have used as data for analysis. Secondary sources are the studies, scholarly works and other sources that you have used as background or material to help you analyse the primary sources.

The bibliography is organized alphabetically.  Entries in the bibliography are marked as follows.


  • Books

One author:

Street, B.V. 1995. Social literacies. Critical approaches to literacy in development, ethnography and education. London: Longman.

Two authors:

Barton, D. and M. Hamilton 1998. Local literacies. Reading and writing in one community. London: Routledge.

    • use italics for the title of the book
    • if the title of the book has a main heading and a subheading, use the full  stop to separate the two headings; use a colon only if it is used by the author of the original work

Brown, P. and S. Levinson 1987 (1978). Linguistic politeness. Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • if there are several editions of the same book with no changes, refer to the edition you have cited in your work and give the year of the original edition in parentheses

Three or more authors:

Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, G. Leech and J. Svartvik 1985. A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.

Ochs, E., E. Schegloff and S. Thompson (eds.) 1996. Interaction and grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • if you refer to more than one work published by the same author, list them in chronological order (e.g. Potter 1996, Potter 1998); if you need to refer to several studies from the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and separate them using letters after the year (Potter 2000a, Potter 2000b)


  • Articles in journals

Baynham, M. 1996. Humour as an interpersonal resource in adult numeracy classes. Language and Education 10 (2), 187–200.

Stevenson, M., R. Schoonen and K. de Glopper 2003. Inhibition or compensation? A multidimensional comparison of reading processes in Dutch and English. Language Learning 53 (4), 765–815.

    • the name of the journal is given in italics
    • use capitals for the first letter of each word in the title of the journal
    • remember to give page numbers


  • Articles in edited books (collections)

Baynham, M. 2000. Academic writing in new and emergent discipline areas. In M.R. Lea and B. Stierer (eds.), Student writing in higher education. Bury St Edmunds: Open University Press, 17–31.

Lea, M.R. 1999. Academic literacies and learning in higher education: constructing knowledge through texts and experience. In C. Jones, J. Turner and B. Street (eds.), Student writing in the university. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 103–124.

    • use italics for the title of the book, not the article


  • Edited books

Duranti, A. and C. Goodwin (eds.) 1992. Rethinking context. Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carson, J. G. and I. Leki (eds.) 1993. Reading in the composition classroom: Second language perspectives. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.


  • Dictionaries and other works by corporate authors

Concise Oxford English dictionary 2004. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Microsoft Windows. User’s guide for the windows graphical environment. 1990. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.

Lukion opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2003. Helsinki: Opetushallitus.


  • Articles in magazines

Ross, D. 1994. Waiving the rules. New Statesman and Society, 22 April 1994, 31–32.


  • Published theses and dissertations

Hakamäki, L. 2005. Scaffolded assistance provided by an EFL teacher during whole-class interaction. Jyväskylä Studies in Humanities 32. University of Jyväskylä.

Alanen, R. 1997. Grammaticality judgments and reaction time measurement: a tool for analyzing the use of second language knowledge [online]. University of Jyväskylä, Department of English. (15 Sep 2005) http://selene.lib.jyu.fi:8080/gradu/f/alanen.pdf.


  • Unpublished theses and dissertations 

Haakana, M. 2000. Laughing matters. A conversation analytical study of laughter in doctor-patient interaction. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Helsinki, Department of Finnish Language.

Lehtonen, A. 2004. English in internal company communication. The employees' views, attitudes and competences. Unpublished Pro Gradu Thesis. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Languages.


  • Unpublished papers

Sajavaara, K. 1994. Orientation in foreign language learning and use. Paper presented at the ALAA Congress, Melbourne, 14–17 August, 1994.


  • Electronic sources

Internet articles based on a printed source

Hindmarsh, J. and C. Heath 2000. Embodied reference. A study of deixis in workplace interaction. Journal of Pragmatics [online], 32 (12), 1855–1878.  (15 Sep 2005) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=JournalURL&_cdi=5965&_auth=y&_acct=C000052082&_version= 1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1234512&md5=b3ddf063c4e298e3d49a04bde 9232c56&chunk=32#32 .

“Creole”, Encyclopaedia Britannica 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service [online].  (19 Oct 2005).  http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9027846.

Lukion opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2003. Finnish National Board of Education [online]. (14 Mar 2005)  http://www.edu.fi/julkaisut/maaraykset/ops/lops_uusi.pdf.

Papers or documents on websites

Burka, L.P. 1993. A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. MUD history [online].  (10 Nov 2002)  http://www.utopia.com/talent/1pb/muddex/essay.

GVU’s 8th WWW user survey (n.d.). (8 Aug 2000)


Human Rights Watch 2003: Children’s rights. (20 Feb 2003)  http://www.hrv.org/children.

The writing centre at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. / (10 Nov 2002) http://www.wisc.edu/writing.


For more information on how to cite electronic sources, see the following web sites:

http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/libguide/cite.html Indiana University Links to Research guides

http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/index.html  Online! Reference guide to using internet sources

http://lib.hut.fi/Ekokoelmat/Elviira/viides.html Elviira: viittaaminen elektronisiin lähteisiin

http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html  APA Style guide: Electronic references