The Bibliography

The bibliography serves your reader. With the help of the information you give about your sources, the reader can find the sources in libraries, book shops or on the Internet and read more about the issues you have raised in your paper (or check that you have used the sources properly).

All the sources that you have cited in your paper or thesis must be included in the bibliography. Other sources that you may have consulted but do not cite, are not included. The bibliography must give all the necessary information about the sources, in other words who wrote the work (author or authors), when the work was published (year of publication), what the work is called (title of book, paper, article, website), and where it was published (e.g. title of journal or website).

If your study is based on published sources (e.g. if you are studying a work of fiction), you should list primary sources and secondary sources separately. Primary sources are those works that you have used as data for analysis. Secondary sources are the studies, scholarly works and other sources that you have used as background or material to help you analyse the primary sources.

The bibliography is organized alphabetically. Entries in the bibliography are marked as follows.

4.1 Books

General format

  • author name(s)
  • publication year (in brackets)
  • title of work (in italics, first word capitalised)
  • place of publication (city or home town of publisher)
  • publisher

One author

Street, B.V. (1995). Social literacies. Critical approaches to literacy in development, ethnography and education. London: Longman.

Yule, G. (2006). The study of language (3rd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • if you refer to an edition other than the first, indicate this in parenthesis. This is important especially in cases where the later edition differs from the original one

Two authors

Barton, D. and Hamilton M. (1998). Local literacies. Reading and writing in one community. London: Routledge.

  • use italics for the title of the book
  • if the title of the book has a main heading and a subheading, use the full  stop to separate the two headings; use a colon only if it is used by the author of the original work

Three or more authors

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.

Ochs, E., Schegloff, E. and Thompson, S. (Eds.) (1996). Interaction and grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • if you refer to more than one work published by the same author, list them in chronological order (e.g. Potter 1996, Potter 1998); if you need to refer to several studies from the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and separate them using letters after the year (Potter 2000a, Potter 2000b)

Edited books

Duranti, A. and Goodwin, C. (Eds.) (1992). Rethinking context. Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carson, J. G. and Leki, I. (Eds.) (1993). Reading in the composition classroom: second language perspectives. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Edited and translated books

Bakhtin, M. M. (1981) The dialogic imagination: four essays. (M. Holquist. Ed., C. Emerson and M.l. Holquist, Trans.). Austin and London: University of Texas Press.

Dictionaries and other works by corporate authors

Concise Oxford English dictionary (2004). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Microsoft Windows. User’s guide for the windows graphical environment. (1990). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.

Lukion opetussuunnitelman perusteet (2003). Helsinki: Opetushallitus.

Modern Language Association (2008). MLA Handbook for writers of research papers. 3rd ed. New York: MLA.

  • if you refer to an edition other than the first, indicate this in the reference


Martin Rojo, L. (2006). Gender and Political Discourse. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. (2nd ed), 742–749.

Articles in journals

  • author(s) (last name followed by initials)
  • title of article (first word and proper nouns capitalised)
  • title of journal / periodical (in italics)
  • volume number
  • pages

Baynham, M. (1996). Humour as an interpersonal resource in adult numeracy classes. Language and Education 10 (2), 187–200.

Stevenson, M., Schoonen, R. and de Glopper, K. (2003). Inhibition or compensation? A multidimensional comparison of reading processes in Dutch and English. Language Learning 53 (4), 765–815.

  • this style is used for articles that are published both in print and online. When referring to an online version of the article, you need to include also the URL address (see Electronic sources, below)

Articles in edited books (anthologies, collections)

  • author(s) of the article (last name followed by initials)
  • title of article (first word and proper nouns capitalised)
  • editors
  • title of edited book (in italics)
  • place of publication
  • publisher
  • pages

Baynham, M. (2000). Academic writing in new and emergent discipline areas. In M.R. Lea and B. Stierer (eds.), Student writing in higher education. Bury St Edmunds: Open University Press, 17–31.

Lea, M.R. (1999). Academic literacies and learning in higher education: constructing knowledge through texts and experience. In C. Jones, J. Turner and B. Street (eds.), Student writing in the university. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 103–124.

Articles in magazines and newspapers

Ross, D. (1994). Waiving the rules. New Statesman and Society, April 22, 1994, 31–32.

Krugman, A. (2007). Fear of eating. New York Times, May 21, 2007, p. A1.

Published theses and dissertations

Hakamäki, L. (2005). Scaffolded assistance provided by an EFL teacher during whole-class interaction. Jyväskylä Studies in Humanities 32. University of Jyväskylä.

Unpublished theses and dissertations

Haakana, M. (2000). Laughing matters. A conversation analytical study of laughter in doctor-patient interaction. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Helsinki, Department of Finnish Language.

Lehtonen, A. (2004). English in internal company communication. The employees' views, attitudes and competences. Unpublished Pro Gradu Thesis. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Languages.

Keski-Heiska, A.-M. (2009). English teachers as constructed in the learning autobiographies written by university students. Unpublished Pro Gradu thesis. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Languages. https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/handle/123456789/21726.

Unpublished papers

Leppänen, S. (2011) Policing language identities in translocal practices online. Paper presented at the AILA conference, Beijing, 23–28 August, 2011.

Electronic sources

1) Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

When you cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print, do it in the same way as you would cite a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. Also provide the URL address of the article or the DOI number of the article.

Milani, T. M. 2010. What's in a name? Language ideology and social differentiation in a Swedish print-mediated debate. Journal of Sociolinguistics [online] 14(1), 595–600. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=a92a58e3-0d31-439f-85f4-f8e80d5898d2%40sessionmgr10&vid=4&hid=17

You can also refer to an online article in a precise way by using digital object identifier (doi.). Many scholarly journals, for example, use the doi. name for identifying online articles. The doi. name is usually found on the first page of the article. When referring to articles identified by doi., simply give the doi. name after the author and title of the article.

Piirainen-Marsh, A. (2011). Irony and the moral order of secondary school classrooms. Linguistics and Education, 364–382. 
doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2010.09.003.

2) Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

If you cite a journal which appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, use the abbreviation n. pag. to denote that there is no pagination for the publication. Make sure to provide the URL address of the article and the date of access.

Dolby, N. (2008). Research in youth culture and policy: current conditions and future directions. Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal [online] 6 (2), n. pag. http://www.socwork.de/sws/article/view/60/120

3) Books (or part of a book)

“Creole”, Encyclopaedia Britannica 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service [online]. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9027846. (19 October, 2009).

4) Official documents

Lukion opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2003. Finnish National Board of Education [online]. http://www.edu.fi/julkaisut/maaraykset/ops/lops_uusi.pdf. (14 March, 2009).

5) Papers and documents published on web-sites

Burka, L.P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. MUD history [online]. http://www.utopia.com/talent/1pb/muddex/essay. (10 November, 2008).

GVU’s 8th WWW user survey (n.d.). [online] http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10.  (8 August, 2009).

6) Web-sites

Human Rights Watch 2003: Children’s rights. http://www.hrv.org/children. (20 February, 2003).

The writing centre at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. http://www.wisc.edu/writing. (10 November, 2002).


For more information on managing citations, see for example “Frequently Asked Questions About APA Style” http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx