Methods and data

To meet the objectives of the study, several types of data and methods of analysis are used. The study is mainly qualitative, comprising of cross-sectional case studies with approaches from ethnographic, phenomenographic and action research as well as design-based research. These data will be collected from upper secondary schools in Helsinki area and in Central Finland representing both city schools and small town schools.

The researchers specialized in linguistics, history, education and classroom practices work together in collecting and analysing data in order to build a multi-perspective and multi-method approach to historical literacy. Working closely as a consortium will result in cross-fertilization between theoretical frames and analytical methods.

Textual data consisting of textbooks and texts used in history studies, students’ essays, transcribed recordings of classroom situations and interviews of teachers and students, and written feedback given to students are analysed employing linguistic methods, such as register and discourse analysis, as well as content analysis.

Document based assignments in different phases of the learning process used to study students’ proficiency and follow L2-students’ development are analysed using both linguistic and descriptive statistical methods.

To investigate current teaching and assessment practices, observational data are analysed using discourse analysis and key-incident analysis. Data produced during the participatory interventions are gathered and analysed utilizing the methods of action research and design-based research.