22.12.2016

Identity politics in Pécs, Tallinn and Turku as European Capitals of Culture, ID-ECC (2011–2013)

Identiteettipolitiikkaa kolmessa Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupungissa: Pécs, Tallinna ja Turku (2011-2013)

Vastuullinen tutkija / Principal investigator: Tuuli Lähdesmäki

Rahoittaja / Funding: Suomen Akatemia / Academy of Finland (2016-2019)

The European Capital of Culture is one of the longest running cultural initiatives of the EU. The project investigates the dynamics and power relations in the identity politics of the initiative. The focus is on the production and relations of local, regional, national, and European cultural identities and their intertwinement with policy, promotional, and reception discourses of the initiative. The interdisciplinary investigation combines sociology with urban, reception, and cultural studies and cultural policy research.

With manifold data (policy documents, promotional and planning material, observations, online discussions, questionnaire responses) and a discourse analytic and mixed method approach the project brings to the fore continuities and breaks between macro and micro structures in the identity politics within the ECOC initiative. The implementation of the research includes three scalarly focuses: the EU policy rhetoric, the local promotional rhetoric, and the audience reception in three case ECOCs (Pécs2010, Tallinn2011, and Turku2011).

The project indicates how area-based cultural identities obtain different meanings, contents, and significances on the different policy levels and in varying geographical, cultural, and social contexts of the case cities. The ECOC designation includes strong symbolic meanings – it has been used particularly in several Eastern European EU member states as a tool for rethinking cultural identities and in remapping the cultural geography of Europe. Cultural initiatives are the EU’s technologies of power. One of their fundamental strategies is to mingle the top-down and bottom-up dynamics between the EU and local agents. Cities are expected to compete for the ECOC designation, invest in its implementation, and foster a common European identity on their own initiative. This is at the same time the ideological core of the EU’s identity politics: to produce feeling of belonging to Europe and self-creating cultural integration in the EU.

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Väitöksen jälkeisessä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan identiteettipolitiikkaa EU:n yhdessä pitkäikäisimmässä kulttuurihankkeessa eli Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupunki -ohjelmassa. Kulttuuristen merkitysten lisäksi ohjelmaan sisältyy monia taloudellisia, poliittisia ja ideologisia tavoitteita. Tutkimuksen pääkysymys on, miten erilaisia identiteettimääritelmiä tuotetaan, käytetään ja ymmärretään Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupungeissa. Tutkimuksen keskiössä on viisi identiteettipolitiikkaan liittyvää käsitettä: paikallisuus, alueellisuus, kansallisuus, eurooppalaisuus ja kulttuurinen monimuotoisuus. Nämä käsitteet risteävät keskenään ja tuottavat toisiaan monimutkaisella tavalla Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupunkien markkinoinnissa, niiden taide- ja kulttuuritarjonnassa ja tarjonnan vastaanotossa. Tutkimuksessa käsitteitä lähestytään kolmella eri tasolla: EU poliittisessa retoriikassa, kohdekaupunkien markkinointiretoriikassa ja yleisön vastaanotossa kohdekaupungeissa kulttuuripääkaupunkivuoden aikana. Tutkimuksen empiria kohdistuu kolmeen kaupunkiin, jotka on valittu Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupungeiksi vuosiksi 2010 (Pécs) ja 2011 (Tallinna ja Turku). Tutkimus toteutetaan kahdella menetelmällä: vertailevalla kyselytutkimuksella ja kriittisellä diskurssianalyysilla.

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Publications / Julkaisut:

Peer-reviewed articles in scholarly journals

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2014): The Influence on Cultural Competence on the Interpretations of Territorial Identities in European Capitals of Culture. Baltic Journal of European Studies 4:1, 69–96. DOI: 10.2478/bjes-2014-0005.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2014): Discourses of Europeanness in the Reception of the European Capital of Culture Events: The Case of Pécs 2010. European Urban and Regional Studies 21:2, 191–205. DOI: 10.1177/0969776412448092.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2014): European Capital of Culture Designation as an Initiator of Urban Transformation in the Post-socialist Countries. European Planning Studies 22:3, 481–497. DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2012.752438.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2013): Identity Politics of the European Capital of Culture Initiative and the Audience Reception of Cultural Events Compared. The Nordic Journal of Cultural Policy / Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift 16:2, 340–365.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2013): Interpretations of Cultural Identities in the European Capital of Culture Events in Turku. Ethnologia Fennica 40:1, 66–88.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2013): Cultural Activism as a Counter-discourse to the European Capital of Culture Programme: The Case of Turku 2011. European Journal of Cultural Studies 16:5, 598–619. DOI: 10.1177/1367549413491720.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2012): Rhetoric of Unity and Cultural Diversity in the Making of European Cultural Identity. International Journal of Cultural Policy 18:1, 59–75. DOI: 10.1080/10286632.2011.561335.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2011): Contested Identity Politics: Analysis of the EU Policy Objectives and the Local Reception of the European Capital of Culture Program. Baltic Journal of European Studies 1:2, 134–166.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2010): European Capitals of Culture as Cultural Meeting Places – Strategies of Representing Cultural Diversity. The Nordic Journal of Cultural Policy / Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift 13:1, 27–43.

Peer-reviewed articles in edited volumes and conference proceedings

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2016): Pop-up Architecture as Urban Regeneration. In June Jordaan, Carl Haddrell and Christine Alegria (eds.) Dialectics of Space and Place across Virtual and Corporeal Topographies, 263-274. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2016): Kaupunkien elämyksellinen kehittäminen ja imagotyö. In Sanna Karkulehto, Tuuli Lähdesmäki & Juhana Venäläinen (toim.) Elämykset kulttuurina ja kulttuuri elämyksinä. Kulttuurintutkimuksen näkökulmia elämystalouteen, 85–109. Nykykulttuurin tutkimuskeskuksen julkaisusarja nro 120. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2015): Virtual Space and the Contention over Representations of the City. In Harris Breslow and Antje Ziethen (eds.) Beyond the Postmodern. Reconceptualisations of Space and Place for the Early 21th Century, 93–118. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2013): Contention on the Meanings and Uses of Urban Space in Turku as the European Capital of Culture 2011. In Didem Kılıçkıran, Christina Alegria & Carl Haddrell (eds.) Space and Place: Exploring Critical Issues, 153–164. Oxfordshire: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2013): Impacts of the European Capital of Culture Designation and the Regeneration of City Space. In Daniel Boswell, Roger O´Shea & Afrat Tzadik (eds.) Interculturalism. Meaning and Identity, 51–64. Oxfordshire: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2011): The European Capital of Culture Program as a National Identity Marker. In Srdjan Jovanović Maldoran (ed.) Citizenship, Inclusion or Exclusion. A Contemporary Survey, 107–118. Oxfordshire: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2011): The Concept of Heritage in the Construction of the European Cultural Identity. In Kerry Gallagher (ed.) Multiculturalism. Critical and Inter-Disciplinary Perspectives, 27–36. Oxfordshire: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2010): Representation Strategies of Cultural Diversity in Three European Capitals of Culture. In Katherine Wilson (ed.) Looking at Ourselves: Multiculturalism: Conflict and Belonging, 3–13. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2009): Concepts of Locality, Regionality and Europeanness in European Capitals of Culture. In Tina Rahimy (ed.) Representation, Expression and Identity: Interdisciplinary Insights on Multiculturalism, Conflict and Belonging, 216–223. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Monographs

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2014): Identity Politics in the European Capital of Culture Initiative. Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Social Sciences and Business Studies no 84. Joensuu: University of Eastern Finland. (pp. 94 + 5 articles).

Non-peer-reviewed scholarly publications

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2014): Lektio: Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupungit identiteettiprojekteina. Kulttuurintutkimus 31:2, 1–4.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2014): Area-based Identities and Their Audience Reception in the European Capital of Culture Events in Tallinn2011. In Maris Hellrand (ed.) Culture! Capital. Change? Effects of the European Capital of Culture Year on Tallinn´s Cultural Life, 109–131.Tallinn: Tallinn Creative Hub.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2013): Discourses on Urban Regeneration in European Capitals of Culture. The Case of Tallinn 2011. In László I. Komlósi & Gyöngyi Pozsgai (eds.) Ageing Society, Ageing Culture? Proceedings of the sixth annual conference of the University Network of the European Capitals of Culture, 18th -19th October 2012 in Maribor, 202–214. UNeECC Forum vol. 5. Pécs: University Network of the European Capitals of Culture.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2012): Celebration of Locality, Regionality, National culture or Europeanness? Notions on Area-based Identities in Pécs2010. In László I. Komlósi, Wim Coudenys & Krisztina Keresnyei (eds.) Culture in/and Crisis. Proceedings of the fifth annual conference of the University Network of the European Capitals of Culture, 27th -28th October 2011 in Antwerp, 122–137. UNeECC Forum vol. 4. Pécs: University Network of the European Capitals of Culture.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2011): Cultural Diversity in the Promotion Rhetoric of European Capitals of Culture. In Wim Cloudenys & James Kenyon (eds.) Innovation, Creativity and Culture. Proceedings of the third annual conference of the University Network of the European Capitals of Culture, 22nd – 23rd October 2009 in Vilnius, 11–21. UNeECC Forum vol. 2. Pécs: University Network of the European Capitals of Culture.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2011): Europeanness in the Making: From Policy to Practice. In Wim Cloudenys & László I. Komlósi (eds.) Inclusion through Education and Culture. The fourth conference of the University Network of the European Capitals of Culture jointly organized with the Compostela Group of Universities, 14th -15th October 2010 in Pécs, 101–106. UNeECC Forum vol. 3. Pécs: University Network of the European Capitals of Culture.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2011): Mistä Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupunki -vuodessa on kyse? Kritiikin Uutiset 1:4, 4–7.

Tuuli Lähdesmäki (2010): Feature Introduction. Researching European Capitals of Culture: Challenges and Possibilities. The Nordic Journal of Cultural Policy 13:1, 22–26.