Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fitted with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS)

SEM/EDS is most useful for differentiating between pigment look-alikes. For example the same color can consist of different pigments and SEM/EDS can reveal their difference. This may help authenticating and dating works of art. By using SEM material samples can be detected in a very large scale magnifications. X-radiation occurs while studying the samples with SEM. The elements and their amount can be found out by analyzing the radiation with EDS.