Accelerators and  ion sources


The JYFL accelerator laboratory hosts three large-scale accelerators: The K130 cyclotron, MCC30/15 cyclotron and the 1.7 MV Pelletron. The main workhorse of the laboratory, the K130 is an isochronous cyclotron equipped with three external electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources and a multicusp light-ion source, which can deliver an exceptionally large variety of heavy- and light-ion beams up to the energy of 130 Q2/A MeV for use in research and applications. The MCC30/15 is a small cyclotron for production of 18-30 MeV protons and 9-15 MeV deuterons with a dedicated filament-driven multicusp negative ion source. The Pelletron accelerator is dedicated facility for accelerator-based material physics.

K130 Cyclotron

  • Heavy ion accelerator for nuclear physics (research and applications)
  • Installation started in June, 1990
  • First extracted beam 1992
  • Experimental hall ready 1992
  • First experiments 1993
  • Annual use: 6000 - 7500 h/year


  • Relocated from Kuopio University Hospital
  • Electron and photon beams
  • Electron energies: 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV
  • Photons: 6 and 15 MV Bremsstrahlung radiation
  • Commissioning and first irradiations 2015


  • 1.7 MV Tandem accelerator for materials physics
  • Transported from Espoo, Finland (VTT) in September 2006
  • Commissioning and first experiments 2007

MCC30/15 Cyclotron

  • Accelerator for protons (18 - 30 MeV) and deuterons (9 - 15 MeV)
  • Installation started in August 2009
  • Acceptance tests were finished in April 2010

Ion sources

In the JYFL accelerator laboratory we have four ion sources injecting to the K130 cyclotron. Three of them are based on electron cyclotron resonance: 6.4, 14 and 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The fourth is a filament-driven multi cusp type H- light ion source LIISA. The ECR ion sources are used for production of highly charged ion beams for nuclear and material physics experiments. LIISA is used for producing intensive proton beams for nuclear physics experiments and medical isotope production.

Information about produced isotopes can be found by clicking an element. This also shows a rough estimate of the maximum ion current [pnA] after K130 cyclotron. Isotopes not shown in the list can probably be produced if enriched material is available. For detailed information contact Hannu Koivisto.


The JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS was completed in 1991 for the nuclear physics program at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä. The ion source is similar to the 6.4 GHz RT-ECRIS at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University NSCL/MSU. The source has been upgraded twice, during 2001-2002 and 2005. First upgrade changed the configuration to a single stage mode and the second upgrade added a modified multipole structure (MMPS). The performance of the current source greatly exceeds the original.


Due to the requirements of ion beams with higher charges and heavier elements than the original 6.4 GHz ECRIS could produce, JYFL decided in 1998 to begin a design and construction project of a new ECR ion source. The project aimed for a source that is based mainly on the design of the 14 GHz AECR-U source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The source was constructed in our own workshop, but the main components were obtained commercially. The first plasma in the source was on February 21, 2000, and the source was commissioned in June 2000. The ion source extraction was upgraded in two stages in 2013 and 2015.


In 2013 a project was initiated to design and construct a new state-of-the-art normal-conducting 18 GHz ECR ion source HIISI for the K130 cyclotron. The source uses innovative features such as refrigerated permanent magnet structure and grooved plasma chamber to enable the high performance. The first plasma was ignited in April 2017. The commissioning of the source was started in September 2017.

H- Light Ion Source, LIISA

The K130 cyclotron of the accelerator laboratory was originally designed for heavy ion acceleration. Many experiments however require proton beams. Therefore, the cyclotron was upgraded to produce proton beams using stripping extraction of H-/D- ions in 2000. The negative ion beams for the cyclotron are produced using a filament-driven multicusp ion source LIISA, developed and built at JYFL in collaboration with Dr. Thomas Kuo (TRIUMF). The source is capable of producing up to 3 mA and 5.9 keV energy.


  • Volume of plasma chamber: 7.7 litres
  • Plasma volume: 0.68 litres
  • Microwave frequency: 6.4 GHz
  • Max. microwave power: 400 W
  • Max. acc. voltage: 15 kV
  • Base vacuum: < 10-7 mbar
  • BECR: 0.23 T
  • BINJ: 1.2 T
  • BEXT: 0.6 T
  • BRAD: 0.5 T (MMPS 0.9 T)
  • BMIN: 0.16 T


  • Volume of plasma chamber : 1.3 litres
  • Plasma volume: 0.2 litres
  • Microwave frequency: 14.1 GHz
  • Max. microwave power: 1000 W
  • Max. acc. voltage: 16 kV
  • Base vacuum < 5·10-8 mbar
  • BECR: 0.5 T
  • BINJ: 2.2 T
  • BEXT: 0.8 T
  • BRAD: 0.85 T
  • BMIN: 0.4 T


  • Volume of plasma chamber : 3.1 litres
  • Plasma volume: 0.5 litres
  • Microwave frequencies: 18+14 GHz
  • Max. microwave power: 2000/400 W
  • Max. acc. voltage: 20 kV
  • Base vacuum < 8·10-8 mbar
  • BECR: 0.64 T
  • BINJ: 2.8 T
  • BEXT: 1.3 T
  • BRAD: 1.3 T
  • BMIN: 0.44 T

H- Light Ion Source, LIISA

  • Plasma chamber volume: 1.2 litres
  • Acceleration voltage: 5.9 kV for 30 MeV protons, 11.0 kV for 60 MeV protons
  • Base vacuum: 10-6 mbar
  • Permanent magnets: 20 pieces, 10 line cusp field